BANGLADESH: COUNTRY PROFILE
Bangladesh as a holiday making land exposes to many flamboyant facets. Its tourist attractions are many folded, which include archaeological sites, historical mosques and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species. Bangladesh offers ample opportunities to tourists for angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, sea bathing as well as bringing one in close touch with pristine nature.
LOCATION AND PHYSICAL FEATURES:
Located in the north-eastern part of South Asia, Bangladesh lies between 20º34′ and 26º36′ north latitude and 88º01′ and 92º41′ east longitude. The majestic Himalayas stand some distance to the north, while in the south lies the Bay of Bengal. The gangetic Plains of west Bengal border the country on the west and in the east lie the hilly and forested regions of Tripura , Mizoram(India) and Myanmar. These picturesque geographical boundaries frame a low lying plain of about 1,47,570 sq.km criss-crossed by innumerable rivers and streams. Mighty rivers the Padma(Ganges), the Brahamaputra(Jamuna) & the Meghna and the Karnafuli. This is Bangladesh, a fertile land where nature is bounteous.
Much of the country’s land area has been built up from alluvial deposits brought down by the major rivers. The country is mostly flat except for a range of hills in the south-east. The topography of the country is characterized by wooded marshy lands and jungles with plane lands occupying most of the river basins. There are deep forested regions in Sylhet, Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarban Hill Districts, Sundarbans (the World Heritage site), Mymensingh and Tangail.
HISTORY OF EMERGENCE:
Bangladesh has a logn and eventful history as a nation. Although it enjoyed as a free and sovereign state only in 1971, after a nine month-long war of liberation, the land itself and its people, have their origin in antiquity. The earliest nation of Bangladesh in found in the 9th century BC Indian epic the Mahabharata. There are evidences of story Mongoloid presence at the time.Then in 5th & 6th century BC came the Aryans from Central Asia and dravidians from western India. The Hindu and Buddhist dynasties of guptas, palas and senas ruled the country until 13th century, when muslim conquerers took over the reigns of the country.
The muslim rules either belonging to independent dynasties such as the Hossain Shahi or Ilyas Shahi dynasties or Viceroys exercising power on behalf of the imperial seat of Delhi and continued to rule the country until the middle of the 18th century, when the British took over the control of Bengal and eventually the whole of India.The Europeans, mainly Portuguese, Dutch, French and British traders had began to arrive in Bangladesh from the 15th century and extended an economic control over the region.
Government of Bangladesh
Conventional long form: People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Conventional short form: Bangladesh.
Data code: BG.
Government type: Republic.
Administrative divisions: 7 divisions: Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rongpur & Sylhet.
Independence: 26 March 1971 (from Pakistan).
National holiday: Independence Day – 26 March (1971), 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh, 21st February and more.
Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times.
Legal system: based on English common law.
Chief of state: Honorable President: Adv. Hamidur Rahman
Head of government: Honorable Prime Minister: Sheikh Hasina.
Cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president.
Elections: President elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 2008; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president.
Legislative branch: Unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms.
Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges are appointed by the president.
Political parties: Awami League or AL; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP; Jatiyo Party or JP; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP and more.
International organization participation: ADB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam.
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India.
Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E.
Map references: Asia
total: 144,000 sq km.
land: 133,910 sq km.
water: 10,090 sq km.
Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Iowa.
total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline: 580 km.
contiguous zone: 18 nm.
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin.
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm.
territorial sea: 12 nm.
Climate: tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast.
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m.
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m.
Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, Agriculture.
arable land: 61%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 36% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 38,440 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely flooded during the summer monsoon season.
Environment-current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation.
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements.
Bangladesh : Demographic Features
The country’s population is almost evenly distributed throughout its 64 districts except for the three Hill Tracts districts which are rather sparsely inhabited. Regionally, the eastern districts have a slightly higher density than the western ones. On average, a district has a population of about 1.8 million, a thana 230,000, a union 25,000 and a village 2,000. There are 490 thanas, 4,451 unions and 59,990 villages. The number of households is about 20 million. On average, a household consists of 5.6 persons. The tribal people, who lead a simple life, are generally self-reliant, producing their own food and drinks and weaving their own clothes.
There are 4 metropolitan cities and 119 municipalities in the country. The level of urbanization is low at 20%. This leaves 80% of the country’s total population of about 120 million to live in the rural areas which primarily depend on a poorly developed agriculture for livelihood. The capital city of Dhaka has an estimated population of 8.58 million. The annual growth rate of the population has come down to 1.75% with the acceptance of family planning practices rising to 48.7%. The crude birth rate per 1000 is 25.6 and the death rate is 8.1. Life expectancy at birth is 59.5 years. The rate of child mortality per 1000 has come down to 76.8 and that of maternal mortality to 4.5. About 96.3% families in the country have now access to safe drinking water. The sex ratio is 106 males for every 100 females. The density of population per square kilometer is 800.
Some 44.3% of the people are literate with about 5 million having passed secondary school level and another 1.27 million being graduates. The primary school enrollment rate has risen to 86% and the rate for secondary school enrollment to 33%. To intensify promotion of compulsory primary education, the food-for education programme has been extended to over 16,000 schools. More and more primary schools will be brought under this programme.
Bangladesh Economy : Quick look
Bangladesh is an agricultural country. With some three-fifths of the population engaged in farming. Jute and tea are principal sources of foreign exchange. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.
For higher GDP growth, investments in both public and private sectors will need to be accelerated. The prevailing political and economic stability has greatly encouraged investment in the private sector. The trend of foreign direct investment is very encouraging.
The government is committed to market economy and has been pursuing policies for supporting and encouraging private investment and eliminating unproductive expenditures in the public sector. A number of measures have been taken to strengthen the planning system and intensify reforms in the financial sector. The present government believe that wastage of resources is a far greater obstacle to development than inadequacy of resources.
It is common knowledge that many development efforts in the past years turned into exercises in futility because of inefficiency and corruption in high places. Terrorism was allowed to paralyse law and order. Administration was over centralized at the cost of local government institutions. The government has, therefore, decided to decentralize administration in the quickest possible time.
GDP: purchasing power parity – $324 billion (2013 est.)
GDP-real growth rate: 6.01% (2013 est.)
GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity – $2100 (2013 est.)
GDP-composition by sector:
services: 52% (2000).
Population below poverty line: 31.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest: 10%: Highest: 4.0% (2009).
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.22% (2012)
Labor force: 64.1 million (1998).
extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers’ remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99.
Labor force-by occupation: agriculture 19%, services 52.3%, industry and mining 28.7% (2007)
Unemployment rate: 4.5% (2010).
Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical, light engineering, sugar, food processing, steel, fertilizer.
Industrial production growth rate: 9.0% (2013)
Electricity-production: 44.06 billion kWh (2011).
Electricity-production by source:
fossil fuel: 92.45%
other: 0% (2000).
Electricity-consumption: 12.548 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity-exports: 0 kWh (2000).
Electricity-imports: 0 kWh (2000).
Agriculture-products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry.
Exports: $6.6 billion (2001)
Exports-commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood.
Exports-partners: US 31.8%, Germany 10.9%, UK 7.9%, France 5.2%, Netherlands 5.2%, Italy 4.42% (2000).
Imports: $8.7 billion (2001)
Imports-commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products, cement.
Imports-partners: India 10.5%, EU 9.5%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 8.5%, China 7.4% (2000)
Economic aid-recipient: $1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poisha.
Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June.
Bangladesh : Language
The official language is Bangla, sometimes called Bengali. It is the first language of more than 98 percent of the population. It is written in its own script, derived from that of Sanskrit. Urdu is the language of several hundred thousand people, many of whom emigrated from India in the late 1940s.
International Mother Language Day :
The UNESCO has declared 21st February as The International Mother Language Day to be observed globally in recognition of the sacrifices of the Bangla language martyrs who laid their lives for establishing the rightful place of Bangla. The proclamation came in the form of a resolution unanimously adopted at the plenary of the UNESCO at its headquarters in Paris in November 1999. In its resolution the UNESCO said-‘ 21st February be proclaimed International Mother Language Day throughout the world to commemorate the martyrs who sacrificed their lives on this very day in 1952’.
It is a great tribute and glowing homage paid by the international community to the language martyrs of Bangladesh. The genesis of the historic Language Movement which ensued since September 1947 with the students in the vanguard backed by intellectuals, cultural activists and patriotic elements was the first spurt of Bangalee nationalistic upsurge culminating in the sanguinary events of February 21, 1952 and finally leading to the war of Liberation in 1971.
The UNESCO in its resolution said-the recognition was given bearing in mind that all moves to promote the dissemination of mother tongues will serve not only to encourage linguistic diversity and multilingual education but also to develop fuller awareness about linguistic and cultural traditions throughout the world and to inspire solidarity based on understanding, tolerance and dialogue.
Henceforth UN member countries around the world will observe 21st February as the International Mother Language Day. The historic 21st February has, thus, assumed new dimension. The sacrifices of Rafiq, Salam, Jabbar, Barkat and other martyrs as well as of those tortured and repressed by the then authoritarian government of Pakistan for championing the cause of their mother tongue have received now a glorious and new recognition by the November 1999 resolution of the UNESCO.
|Bangladesh : Currency & Banking
The principal unit of currency in Bangladesh is the Taka (49.09 taka equal U.S.$1; 1999 average); the taka is divided into 100 paisa. The government-run Bangladesh Bank handles central-banking operations
List of Some Govt. & Private Sector Banks of Bangladesh:
|Agrani Bank||National Bank of Pakistan|
Bangladesh : A New Horizon For Investment
Bangladesh is now trying to establish itself as the next rising star in South Asia for foreign investment. The government has implemented a number of policy reforms designed to create a more open and competitive climate for private investment, both foreign and local.
The country has a genuinely democratic system of government and enjoys political stability seen as a sine qua non for ensuring a favorable climate for investment and sustained development.
Bangladesh has been quick to undertake major restructuring for establishing a market economy, with the major thrust coming from the private sector. The country enjoys modest but steady economic growth. Its current development strategy is based on the premise that the creation and distribution of wealth occurs through the acceleration of growth driven by competitive market forces, with the government facilitating growth and making a clean break from the practices of a controlled economy where private investment is constrained. With this end in view. The government has been gradually withdrawing its involvement in this industrial and infrastructure sectors and promoting private sector participation.
The government has moved speedily to translate its policy pronouncements into specific reforms. It has been consistently pursuing an open-door investment policy and playing a catalytic rather than a regulatory role.
Regulatory controls and constrains have been reduced to a minimum. The government has steadily liberalized its trade regime. Significant progress has been achieved in reducing non-tariff restrictions on trade, rationalizing tariff rates and improving export incentives. The introduction of VAT has helped rationalization of the import tariff and domestic tax structures. The tariff structure and the import policy are kept under constant review to identify areas where further improvements are called for.
On the legal and administrative front, the government has initiated measures to give greater autonomy and independence to the judiciary – a pre-requisite as viewed by investors, for the restoration of confidence in the judicial system.
A permanent Law Reform Commission has already been set up to ensure greater transparency and predictability in the way rules and regulations are made and implemented.
An Administrative Reform Commission to rationalize existing rules, regulations and procedures has also been set up.
The Company Law has been updated and modernized. The Securities and Exchange Commission has been established to oversee and regulate the operations of the stock market.
The financial services have been strengthened through enactment of the Banking Companies Act, 1991 and the Financial Institution Act, 1993. The Industrial Relations Act has been amended to enhance labour market efficiency.
Motivated by the simple realization that state-owned enterprises are a drain on its scarce resources and that these are generally inefficient, very costly and slow in responding to changing markets and consumer desires, the country has embarked on a privatization programme, offering substantial opportunities for international investors.
In order to entice investors, the government has put in place an extensive programe of incentives, which include :
|no ceiling on investment.|
|tax-exemption and duty-free importation of capital machinery and spare parts for 100% export-oriented industries.|
|residency permits for foreign nationals.|
|capital, profit and dividend repatriation facilities.|
|hundred percent foreign equity allowed.|
|exemption of income tax upto three years for expatriate employees.|
|term loans and working capital loans from local banks allowed.|
|reinvestment of repatriable dividends treated as new investment.|
|double-taxation avoidance, as per bilateral agreements already concluded.|
|tax exemption on the interest payable on foreign loans and on royalties and technical know-how fees.|
|open exchange controls.|
|multiple-entry visas for foreign investors.|
|investors can take advantage of the generalized system of preference, which allows duty-free access to American, European and Japanese markets.|
|Taka is convertible for current account transactions.|
The Country also offers :
|extremely competitive labour costs, perhaps the lowest in Asia.|
|easily trainable workforce of 56 million.|
|a large domestic market, with disposable income growing especially among the middle class.|
|strategic location as the bridge between South and East Asian high-growth regions as well as links with other markets e.g. India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Singapore etc.|
|low land and energy costs.|
|good road/bridge/rail infrastructure, which are being improved; two sea-ports being further developed.|
|enjoys Most Favoured Nations status.|
|legal protection to foreign investment against nationalization and expropriation.|
|equitable treatment with local investors regarding indemnification, compensation etc.|
All sectors of industry (except five) are open for private investment. The five sectors reserved for public investment only are defense and defense production, nuclear energy, extraction from reserved forests, security printing and mint and air transportation (some domestic routes and international air cargo already opened for private investment.) and railways.
Some of the foreign private investment opportunities are:
|direct (100%) foreign investment or joint venture investment in the Export Processing Zones (EPZs) or outside EPZs (with the exception of the five industries mentioned earlier).|
|portfolio investment by purchasing shares in publicly listed companies through the stock exchange.|
|investment in infrastructure projects such as power generation (private power generation policy announced); oil, gas and mineral exploration, telecommunication, ports, roads and highways.|
|outright purchase or purchase of shares of state-owned enterprises, which are under process of privatization.|
|investment in private EPZ (Private EPZ Act recently passed).|
Foreign investment is particularly welcome in the export-oriented industries such as textiles, leather goods, electronic products and components, chemicals and petrochemicals, agro-based industries, green jute pulp, paper, rayon products, frozen foods (dominated by shrimp farming), tourism, agriculture, light industries, software and data processing.
Foreign investment is also desired in high technology products that will help import substitution or industries that will be labour as well as technology intensive.
The country’s drive for foreign investment is being spearheaded by the Board of Investment, which was created to facilitate the setting up of manufacturing and other industries in the private sector, both local and foreign. It is a promotional organization dedicated towards providing investment assistance to all investors.
The Board is headed by the country’s Prime Minister and it includes Ministers and Secretaries from the concerned ministries as well as representatives from the private sector.
The Board has launched an investment promotion drive at home and abroad to attract investors. The BOI has been assisting in the implementation of new projects as well as providing services.
Bangladesh is on the verge of a significant breakthrough in terms both of international investor confidence and significant inflow of new investment funds.
Education of Bangladesh
Highest allocations for education in the national budgets during the nineties show that the government has attached topmost priority to human resource development though education. The goal of ‘Education for All’ is being vigorously pursued in the country. The education system is divided into 4 levels– Primary (from grades 1 to 5), Secondary (from grades 6 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and tertiary. Alongside national educating system, English medium education is also provided by some private enterprises. They offer ‘A’ level and ‘O’ level courses. There is also Madrasa system which emphasizes on Arabic medium Islam-based education. This system is supervised by the lone Madrasa Board of the country.
Compulsory primary education, free education for girls up to class ten, stipends for female students, food-for educational total literacy movement and nationwide integrated education are some of the major programs being the government in the education sector.
There are 11 government universities and approximately 20 private universities in Bangladesh. Specialized universities are Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Bangladesh Agricultural University and Bangabandhu Shaikh Mujib Medical University.. The number of government and non-government medical colleges stand at 1 3 and 5 respectively. There are 4 engineering colleges, 2845 colleges, institutes, 12553 secondary schools, and 78595 primary schools.
To make higher education accessible to all, an Open University has been set up in the country. A National University has also been set up to serve as an affiliating university colleges across the country.
Alongside the general system of education parallel system known as Madrasha education which offers Islamic education to Muslim boys and girls. Hindus and Buddhists also receive religious education at institutes called Tol and Chatuspathi.
Fair & Festivals of Bangladesh
Fairs and festivals have always played a significant role in the life of the citizens of this country. They derive from them a great amount of joy, entertainment and color for life. While most of the festivals have sprung from religious rituals, the fairs have their roots in the very heart of the people, irrespective of religion, caste or creed.
The advent of Bengali New Year is gaily observed throughout the country. The Day (mid-April) is a public holiday. Most colorful daylong gatherings along with arrangement of cultural program and traditional Panta at Ramna Park, Dhaka is a special feature of Pahela Baishakh. Tournaments, boat races etc. are held in cities and villages amidst great jubilation. Many fairs are held in Dhaka and other towns and villages.
March 26 is the day of Independence of Bangladesh. It is the biggest state festival. This day is most befittingly observed and the capital wears a festive look. It is a public holiday. The citizens of Dhaka wake up early in the morning with the booming of guns heralding the day. Citizens including government leaders and sociopolitical organizations and freedom fighters place floral wreaths at the National Martyrs Monument at Savar. Bangla Academy, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy and other socio-cultural organizations hold cultural functions. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated to give the capital city a dazzling look. Similar functions are arranged in other parts of the country.
21st Feb, the National Mourning Day and World Mother Language Day
21 February is observed throughout the country to pay respect and homage to the sacred souls of the martyrs’ of Language Movement of 1952. Blood was shed on this day at the Central Shahid Minar (near Dhaka Medical College Hospital) area to establish Bangla as a state language of the then Pakistan. All subsequent movements including struggle for independence owe their origin to the historic language movement. The Shahid Minar (martyrs monument) is the symbol of sacrifice for Bangla, the mother tongue. The day is closed holiday. Mourning procedure begin in Dhaka at midnight with the song Amar vaier raktay rangano ekushay February (21st February, the day stained with my brothers’ blood). Nationals pay homage to the martyrs by placing flora wreaths at the Shahid Minar. Very recently the day has been declared World Mother Language Day by UNESCO.
Eid-e-Miladunnabi is the birth and death day of Prophet Muhammad (s). He was born and died the same day on 12th Rabiul Awal (Lunar Month). The day is national holiday, national flag is flown atop public and private houses and special food is served in orphanages, hospitals and jails. At night important public buildings are illuminated and milad mahfils are held.
The biggest Muslim festival observed throughout the world. This is held on the day following the Ramadan or the month of fasting. In Dhaka big congregations are held at the National Eidgah and many mosques.
Second biggest festival of the Muslims. It is held marking the Hajj in Mecca on the 10th Zilhaj, the lunar month. Eid congregations are held throughout the country. Animals are sacrificed in reminiscence of Hazrat Ibrahim’s (AM) preparedness for the supreme sacrifice of his beloved son to Allah. It is a public holiday.
Muharram procession is a ceremonial mournful procession of Muslim community. A large procession is brought out from the Hussaini Dalan Imambara on 10th Muharram in memory of the tragic martyrdom of Imam Hussain (RA) on this day at Karbala in Iraq. Same observations are made elsewhere in the country.
Durga Puja, the biggest festival of the Hindu community continues for ten days, the last three days being culmination with the idol immersed in rivers. In Dhaka the big celebrations are held at Dhakeswari Temple, where a fair is also held and at the Ram Krishna Mission.
Christmas, popularly called “Bara Din (Big Day)”, is celebrated with pomp in Dhaka and elsewhere in the country. Several day-long large gatherings are held at St. Mary’s Cathedral at Ramna, Portuguese Church at Tejgaon, Church of Bangladesh (Protestant) on Johnson Road and Bangladesh Baptist Sangha at Sadarghat Dhaka. Functions include illumination of churches, decorating Christmas tree and other Christian festivities.
Rabindra & Nazrul Jayanti
Birth anniversary of the noble laureate Rabindranath Tagore on 25th Baishakh (May) and that of the National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam on 11th Jaystha (May) are observed throughout the country. Their death anniversaries are also marked in the same way. Big gatherings and song sessions organized by socio-cultural organizations are salient features of the observance of the days.
Tagore is the writer of our national anthem while National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam is famous as Rebel Poet.
At a place near Sonargaon (about 27 km. from Dhaka) a very attractive festival observed by the Hindu Community every year on the last day of Chaittra (last Bengali month) – mid April, when the devotees take religious bath in the river.
There are various other festivals that are habitually observed by Bangladesh all the year round.
Bangladesh : Clothing
Bangladeshi women habitually wear Sarees. Jamdani was once world famous for it’s most artistic and expensive ornamental fabric. Moslin, a fine and artistic type of cloth was well-known worldwide. Naksi Kantha, embroidered quilted patchwork cloth produced by the village women, is still familiar in villages and towns simultaneously. A common hairstyle is Beni (twisted bun) that Bangalee women are fond of. Traditionally males wear Panjabis, Fatuas and Pajamas. Hindus wear Dhuty for religious purposes. Now-a-days common dresses of males are shirts and pants.
Government and non-government organizations like Bangla Academy, Nazrul Institute, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy, Fine arts Institute, Chhayanat etc. play significant role to flourish Bangladeshi art and culture providing encouragement in music, drama, dance, recitation, art etc. Many other cultural organizations are also popularizing Bangladeshi art and culture.